Etnosocial differentiation of the merchants of Pereyaslav during the second half of the XVII – XIX centuries.
In the article on the basis of literature and archival sources highlights etnosocial differentiation, status and the number of merchants of Pereyaslav. Find out the features of trade and inter-ethnic relations. After the National revolution and Liberation war of the middle of XVII century, due to a suspend for a while the dominance of foreign traders increased the portion of people shopping – representatives of the Ukrainian ethnos. In particular, in 1666 engaged in trade 84 people of which were distinguished Greek merchants (who lived in the houses 9 yards), Ukrainian merchants and Russian traders. The status of «real» merchants of Pereyaslav in XVII–XVIII centuries had only the most wealthy citizens, who were engaged only in trade. In the second half of the eighteenth century. only part of the burghers of Pereyaslav, which had previously traded their wares, gradually moved on to buying up and reselling of goods, becoming, respectively, the status of merchants. «Extract from magistrates ‘documents 1767» merchants record 63 (85 %), who were engaged in merchant trade and lived in Pereyaslav, from merchants or more than 1,5 % (of the total population of the city). The large majority of them were engaged in shinkareva and milky fi shing. Ukrainian trade people visibly «pushed» foreign merchants, especially Greek and Russian. Greek merchants possessed in Pereyaslav signifi cant part of retail stores, where they sold tar, forging products, fi sh and alcoholic drinks and groceries, which were delivered from Nezhin. Russian traders signifi cant benefi ts were obtained even for Peter, when he limited the free pretty Ukrainian trade. As a result of the foreign merchants, the number of Pereyaslav merchants in 1787 was only 13 people. In the fi rst quarter of the nineteenth century. in Pereyaslav continues «trading» attack other ethnic merchants, especially markedly increased the number of Jews. The Jews engaged primarily in trade, amounted to more than 5% of the number of all pereslavtsev. According to the census of 1897, Ukrainians merchants was 18, they were inferior in numbers to the Jewish merchants – 181 and Russian traders – 21. Jewish merchants dominated trade, wealthy merchants were engaged in purchase and sale of a variety of goods, making change, contained wine farming in the city like that. The methodological basis of the work were the principles of historicism, systematic and scientifi c objectivity. They led to the combination of General, special and specifi c, concrete analysis of these phenomena under certain conditions, and adequate interpretation of the source text.
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